The 2022 Climate and Energy Benchmark on the Transport Sector is the first to combine an assessment of companies’ climate strategy and performance together with social performance in the same benchmark and ranking. The performance on climate is examined through an Assessing Low-Carbon (ACT) assessment. Social performance is examined through the just transition indicators (JT), and core social indicators (CSI).

The Assessing low-Carbon Transition (ACT) Transport sector methodology is a product of the ACT initiative, which assesses an organisation’s readiness to transition to a future low-carbon world and aims to drive action by companies to move to a 1.5 °C pathway in terms of their climate strategy, business model, investments, operations, and greenhouse gas emissions management. The ACT initiative, initiated in 2015 by ADEME (the French agency for the ecological transition) and CDP, has created an overarching framework and sector-specific methodologies, of which the Transport methodology is one. The World Benchmarking Alliance (WBA) became the official host of the ACT initiative in June 2022.

Together with the CDP, the WBA has translated the ACT Transport methodology into assessments that form an integral part of the Transport Benchmark 2022. A full ACT assessment including performance, narrative and trend has been undertaken for the 90 companies. The full list of 90 companies is available here.

This Transport Benchmark 2022 forms the fourth of a series of rankings and updates within the Climate and Energy Benchmark of the WBA. In 2021, the Climate and Energy Benchmark measured and ranked the climate action performance of 30 keystone automotive manufacturers (3rd iteration of ACT-based results), 50 keystone electric utilities (2nd iteration) and 100 keystone oil & gas companies (1st iteration). It will continue to measure and rank the climate action performance of companies in other high carbon emitting industries within the decarbonisation and energy system, including real estate and construction, metals & mining, and capital goods.

For the first time in the Climate and Energy Benchmark series, companies are also assessed against social indicators. This is done thanks to the inclusion of indicators coming from the WBA Just Transition methodology and from the WBA Social Transformation (see ‘Approach to scoring and ranking – 2022’ section below).

The WBA’s core social indicators (CSI) are used to assess companies on their respect for human rights, providing and promoting decent work, and acting ethically. These social criteria are applicable to all 2000 companies covered in WBA’s benchmarks. In tandem, companies in the Climate and Energy Benchmark series are assessed using WBA’s just transition indicators to examine companies’ social dialogue and stakeholder engagement, and their planning and execution of fundamental contributions to a just transition. This methodology examines the foundational steps companies should take to contribute to a low-carbon transformation that leaves no one behind.


The WBA Transport Benchmark 2022 is a sector-specific benchmark within the WBA Climate and Energy Benchmark. The Climate and Energy Benchmark will clarify where and how companies can contribute to SDG 13, SDG 7, and the Paris Agreement, and incentivise them to align their strategies and operations with a 1.5 °C pathway. It is part of the decarbonisation and energy transformation identified by the WBA as one of the seven system transformations required to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

An assessment of the SDGs and corresponding targets demonstrated that the decarbonisation and energy transition will have an evident impact on SDG 1 (no poverty), SDG 3 (good health and wellbeing), SDG 7 (affordable and clean energy), SDG 9 (industry, innovation and infrastructure), SDG 12 (responsible consumption and production), SDG 13 (climate action) and SDG 17 (partnerships for the goals), amongst others.

All WBA benchmarks build on existing standards and norms and seek to draw on existing frameworks and initiatives. For this reason, the ACT methodologies have been adopted as suitable existing methodologies. The ACT methodologies, and the just transition and core social methodologies, used to create the Climate and Energy Benchmark, can act as roadmaps, setting out how high-emitting companies can contribute to the decarbonisation and energy transformation and achieving SDGs 1, 3, 7, 9, 12, 13 and 17 – amongst others – and the Paris Agreement.

More details about the interconnections between various SDGs and achieving a just low-carbon transition that leaves no one behind can be found in WBA’s just transition approach report.

The Climate and Energy Benchmark uses data that the TCFD promotes the publication of, while the benchmark can allow financial actors to better understand transition risk. Both initiatives focus on companies’ governance, metrics and targets, and aspects of risk management practices (such as low-carbon transition planning and climate change scenario analysis).

The Climate and Energy Benchmark uses data that the TCFD promotes the publication of, while the benchmark can allow financial actors to better understand transition risk. Both initiatives focus on companies’ governance, metrics and targets, and aspects of risk management practices (such as low-carbon transition planning and climate change scenario analysis).

Industry scope of the benchmark

The WBA Transport Benchmark includes companies with activities in both passengers and good transport services. Various modes of transport are considered:

  • aviation/airlines (NACE codes 51.10 and 51.21)
  • shipping (NACE codes 50.20 and 50.40)
  • road (NACE codes 49.31 and 49.41)
  • rail (NACE codes 49.10 and 49.20)
  • combinations of these (multi-modal)

Due to a lack of suitable decarbonisation pathway, the benchmark does not cover sea passenger transport companies.

Company scope of the benchmark

The transport sector’s keystone companies are included in the Transport Benchmark 2022. The ‘keystone company’ is based on the concept and characteristics of keystone actors as defined by Österblom et al in 2015, as those that play a vital role in the industry and have a disproportionate effect on the structure and function of the system in which they operate. Of the potential global transporters, 90 keystone companies were included in the Benchmark based on the following criteria:

  • Companies that dominate global production or service revenues and volumes within the transport sector.
  • Companies that control globally relevant segments of production and/or service provision. For the 90 keystone transport companies, this was based on an assessment of company size metrics, where available, including: number of passengers, number of miles transported, fleet size, twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) capacity, etc.
  • Companies that connect (eco)systems globally through subsidiaries and supply chains.
  • Companies that influence global governance processes and institutions.
  • Companies that have a global footprint, particularly significant in developing countries.

Assessments for the 2022 Transport Benchmark

ACT assessment

The ACT Transport methodology used for this benchmark includes principles, scope, boundaries and performance indicators, as well as performance, narrative and trend scoring explanations. The methodology was developed through research and multi-stakeholder dialogue. ACT builds on the Sectoral Decarbonization Approach (SDA), developed by the Science-Based Targets Initiative (SBTi), to compare a company’s alignment to its low-carbon pathway.

Like every ACT methodology, the full ACT Transport methodology assessment generates a rating comprising:

  • A performance score – represented as a number from 0 (lowest) to 20 (highest) – presents a broad and modulated view of company performance across key levers for low-carbon transition.
  • A narrative score – represented as a letter from A (highest) to E (lowest) – provides a holistic view of a company’s state of alignment with the goals of the Paris Agreement.
  • A trend score – represented as “+” for improving, “=” for remaining the same, or “-“ for worsening – signals the near-term movement of company alignment with the low-carbon economy.

To reflect as best as possible the importance of levers transport companies can activate during their journey toward a low-carbon transition, three different company profiles are defined, coming with respective weighting schemes:

  • Companies operating their own fleet
  • Companies subcontracting their activities
  • Public service delegations

Some companies combine both internally carried out services as well as subcontracted ones. In such cases, the two respective weighting schemes are used for the assessment and scores are combined thanks to the respective shares of activities.

The figure below lists the modules and indicators weights, highlighting their importance in driving the decarbonisation of the company.

Figure: ACT performance assessment indicator weighting

A company’s module-level scores, and the overall performance score, are presented in each full WBA company scorecard. The text in the “Leading practices” and “Risks and opportunities” section give an additional commentary on a selection of performance assessment modules.

The narrative assessment is an overall analysis of all available data sources (including sources additional to those used for the performance assessment) to establish a company’s state of alignment with the goals of the Paris Agreement. The narrative assessment considers the performance assessment, as well as further analysis of the company based on four criteria: business model and strategy; consistency and credibility; reputation; and risks. The overall narrative score is presented in each WBA company scorecard. The section “Progress towards the Paris Agreement provides additional commentary on each of the five ACT guiding questions that create consistent ACT ratings: on commitments, transition planning, present activities, legacy and consistency.

For the trend assessment, the company is assigned a “+”, “=”, or “-”, depending on whether the analyst deems that the future company will be less, equally or more able to meet the requirements of the low-carbon transition in a re-assessment in the near-term. This is presented in each WBA company scorecard. The section “Trend” provides commentary on the trend assessment.

More details can be found in the ACT Transport methodology.

Social transformation assessment

From 2022 onwards, all Climate and Energy Benchmark assessments will comprise the Assessing Low-carbon Transition (ACT assessment) and the social transformation assessment. The latter comprises the WBA just transition and core social indicators (see the WBA Transport 2022 methodology report for further details).

There are six just transition indicators (JTI):

  • JTI 1: Social dialogue and stakeholder engagement
  • JTI 2: Just transition planning
  • JTI 3: Creating and providing or supporting access to green and decent jobs
  • JTI 4: Retaining and re- and/or upskilling
  • JTI 5: Social protection and social impact management
  • JTI 6: Advocacy for policies and regulations

There are 18 core social indicators (CSI) distributed across 3 pillars:

  • Respect human rights
  • Provide and promote decent work
  • Act ethically

Approach to scoring and ranking – 2022

ACT assessment

A score is given per indicator which is used to calculate the performance element of the ACT score. The narrative assessment is then produced by analysing the company against the four narrative criteria. Data from the performance assessment as well as other verifiable public data on the company such as annual and sustainability reports and news from reliable sources is considered. Finally, the trend score is produced synthesising the forward-looking aspects of the assessment to consider whether the company’s performance would improve, stay the same or worsen if assessed again in the near future.

To create the ACT rating score, a weighting was applied to each of the performance, narrative, and trend scores as follows:

  • The performance score has a 1:1 weighting, i.e., a score of 12 is 12;
  • The narrative score is weighted: A=20, B=15, C=10, D=5, E=0; and
  • The trend score is weighed: “+”=2, “=”=1, “-“= 0.

Social transformation assessment

The just transition methodology is based on 6 indicators (JTI), which are all scaled on 2 points. JTI 1 and JTI 2 are double-weighted while all other ones (from JTI 3 to JTI 6) are single-weighted.

The core social indicators (CSI) are scaled on 1 point. They all are single-weighted, except CSI 4 and CSI 5 which are double-weighted.

Figure: Total benchmark ranking scores

ACT, CSI and JTI scores are set to 60%, 20% and 20% of the total score respectively. The ACT rating score is normalised to 60 and the just transition total score is normalised to 20. This overall weighted score results in the Transport Benchmark 2022 ranking.

Total figures for assessments can be subject to rounding differences, but this has not had any overall effect on the ranking.

Data collection process

The Transport Benchmark 2022 assesses the most reliable, latest available, public and verifiable data. Trends in past performance of the company are analysed over five years before the reporting year.  2021 was the most recent year for which complete regulatory data was available, meaning quantitative datapoints were taken from 2016 to 2021.

Data was collected in the first instance from CDP’s disclosure platform where possible, as well as other sources such as specialist databases and public materials from company websites including sustainability and corporate responsibility reports.

Companies were also invited to directly participate in the data validation process by submitting information during a two–week period within June and July 2022.

All 90 companies were welcome to provide additional information; 35 provided additional data either through the data validation process or by other means within the time period.

Disclosing company scores

Scores for each company are available publicly, for all stakeholders. For the ACT-related information, this is available:

  • For the performance assessment, at indicator, module and overall score level;
  • For the narrative assessment, at the overall score level;
  • For the trend score, at the overall score level.

Individual company results are presented in the company scorecards. Module-levels rankings are presented in the ‘Ranking’ section of the website. Five key findings and cross-sample analysis from each transport sub-sector is available in the Insights Report.

More information about all 90 companies’ assessments is available in an Excel file here. This Excel file contains:

  • ACT module and indicator-level scores
  • A written summary about each ACT module score, for each company
  • Core social and just transition indicator-level scores
  • More information about the companies’ data availability and participation in the data validation process.

Methodology development

ACT Transport methodology

The ACT transport methodology was developed according to a robust, credible, and replicable process. It was built based on extensive research and outcomes resulting from multi-stakeholder dialogues.

The ACT Transport methodology was developed by CDP and ADEME and the first version was released in 2021. ACT methodologies are based on the principles and guidelines of the publicly available ACT Framework.

Consultation process

The ACT transport methodology was developed in consultation with companies and experts in the sector, and pilot companies reported against the methodology and received an ACT pilot assessment and rating privately. Bolloré Logistics (multimodal), ComfortDelGro Corporation (road) and CMA CGM (sea) participated in this pilot company road test. Pilot companies were chosen making sure that all transport modes were represented meanwhile ensuring worldwide distribution of actors as well.

The methodology had input from a Technical Working Group (TWG) from September 2019 to March 2020, as well as multistakeholder feedback received during a 1-month public consultation. You can find out more via the ACT initiative website: and about participating companies here:

ACT methodology development process

Feedback from the TWG and public consultation informed the direction of the methodology and consultation feedback was considered in the final published version of the ACT transport methodology.

WBA core social and just transition  methodologies

All WBA methodologies are based on internal research, multistakeholder public consultations and dialogues with experts. The just transition methodology benefited from the feedback from an Advisory Group.

More details can be found on our website:

Publication of WBA Transport 2022

In October 2022, the key findings and company scorecards were published online, with the Benchmark officially launched on 18th October. The WBA company scorecard had previously been made available to each company to inform them of their scores.

Explanatory note

In both the WBA key findings and company scorecards, the term ‘1.5 °C pathway’ is used to refer to the ‘company benchmark’ pathway. This is the pathway allocated to an individual company from the sector decarbonisation pathway, built on the Sectoral Decarbonisation Approach (SDA) of the Science-Based Targets Initiative (SBTi) using the International Transport Forum (ITF)’s Reshape+ scenario.

Some quantitative ACT indicators also rely on:

  • The geography of transport systems, regarding the average lifetimes of vehicles
  • Data from various IEA studies, regarding the share of low-carbon vehicles and energies

You can read more about the application of the sector and company benchmarks and other quantitative benchmarks in the ACT Transport methodology:

Other technical notes

All monetary values are expressed in US dollars (US$) using the World Bank’s official average annual USD exchange rates database.